An Expat’s One-Stop Guide to Driving in Ireland

An Expat’s One-Stop Guide to Driving in Ireland


Last updated January 19, 2024 24 minutes read

Steering Through Spuds and Sheep: Tips for Driving, Requirements, Traffic Rules, and Beyond

As you embark on your adventure through Ireland’s scenic landscapes and picturesque roads, or the bustling city streets, let us help you get a grip on the local driving rules and customs for a safe journey. As an expat, mastering the Irish way of the road is your ticket to a seamless travel experience.

This one-stop guide equips you with an understanding of the driving and insurance requirements, accepted driver’s licences, and age restrictions for drivers. We explain Penalty Points and NCT. You’ll even find links to official resources. We’ll tackle the driving rules, tricky roundabouts, tolls, and give you parking and driving tips. We’ll even cover the essential differences between driving in Northern Ireland vs. the Republic of Ireland, and the US. All of these might be quite different from what you’re accustomed to.

Keep reading to discover everything you need to know about driving in Ireland as an expat:

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Depending on where you’re coming from, driving on Irish roads is an adventure filled with new challenges. From driving on the left side of the road to getting used to manual transmission cars, deciphering the colorful road signs and Gaelic place names, this guide is your handbook to adapting swiftly and conquering the Irish roads like a seasoned local.

Whether you’re planning to commute, set off on a scenic road trip around Ireland to explore the enchanting countryside, or simply run daily errands, understanding these details will let you have a safe and enjoyable driving experience in Ireland.

What are the Requirements to Drive in Ireland?

Driving in Ireland involves understanding and complying with specific requirements to ensure you’re legally allowed to take the wheel. This section breaks down these prerequisites into clear, manageable categories.

Driver’s Licence Requirements

Similar to many other countries, it’s mandatory to have a valid driver’s licence in Ireland. The rules for using a foreign driver’s licence in Ireland vary based on the country of issuance, especially for expats who plan to stay for an extended period. To obtain an Irish driver’s licence, you typically need to pass a driving test, a theory test, and, in some cases, exchange your foreign licence. Here’s a breakdown of the different scenarios:

Yellow box road markings in Dublin.
In Dublin City Centre, it is illegal to stop on the yellow box on the junction.

Driving Tests for Licence Conversion

If your licence is not from an EU/EEA country, you may be required to take a written theory test and a practical driving test to obtain an Irish driver’s licence. The theory test covers a range of topics, including road signs, rules of the road, and safe driving practices. The practical test assesses your driving skills, including vehicle controls, and the ability to safely navigate Irish roads.


Get started with exchanging your foreign licence on the official NDLS website.

Find the official details about the Irish driving test on the RSA website.

Prepare and book your driver theory test on the DTT site.

Apply for a driving licence with the NDLS here.

Car Insurance Requirements

Having car insurance in Ireland is a legal requirement. Various car insurance policies are available, ranging from minimal to full coverage:

Challenges of Getting Insurance as an Expat

It is common that expats find it quite challenging to get car insurance in Ireland and have their international driving experience accepted along with foreign no claims bonuses. Unlike most insurers who turn a blind eye to your driving history outside Ireland, Clements is one of the only brokers who actively accepts no-claims bonuses from select countries and ensures they’re reflected in your premium.

Learn more about your car insurance options in Ireland, which are specifically tailored for foreign nationals and expats.

Beware of Ghost Brokers

When searching for car insurance, it’s important to be aware of the risk posed by ghost brokers, who are a significant problem in Ireland. These fraudulent individuals or groups sell fake or invalid insurance policies, often targeting people seeking affordable rates. They typically operate online, via classified ads, or social media and may also use tactics such as cold calling or door-to-door sales.

Ghost brokers use deceptive practices like forging insurance documents or misrepresenting risk information to sell policies from legitimate insurers. The danger of ghost brokers lies in the fact that customers only realize the fraud when they need to make an insurance claim, finding themselves without valid coverage.

To safeguard against ghost brokers, exercise caution and conduct thorough research before committing to a policy. Be wary of offers that seem too good to be true, especially those with exceptionally low rates. Always verify the credentials of an insurance broker, ensuring they are registered with the Central Bank of Ireland.

If you suspect you’ve encountered a ghost broker, report the incident to the Gardaí (Irish police) and the Central Bank of Ireland here.

Age and Health Requirements

The legal age to drive a car in Ireland is 17. However, rental car companies often have their own age requirements, usually requiring drivers to be at least 21 or 25 years old. Additionally, certain health conditions may require you to notify the National Driver Licence Service (NDLS) and could impact your ability to drive.


Find the most up to date driving licence categories and minimum age requirements on the website.

See the medical report requirements on the website.

Vehicle Registration and Roadworthiness

All vehicles in Ireland must be registered and have a valid motor tax. Additionally, cars over four years old must pass the National Car Test (NCT) to verify that they meet safety and environmental standards. This test checks various aspects of the vehicle, including brakes, emissions, and lights, and must be repeated at regular intervals.

We look at the NCT in more detail below:

What is the National Car Test?

The National Car Test (NCT) is a mandatory vehicle inspection program in Ireland that ensures cars over a certain age meet essential safety and environmental standards. It is similar to the MOT test in the United Kingdom or the vehicle emissions test in some US states.

The primary goal of the NCT is to reduce the number of road accidents resulting from vehicle defects and to lower emissions. The frequency of the NCT depends on the age and type of the vehicle.

National Car Test inspections are a must in Ireland.
To improve road safety and reduce emissions, all cars are required to pass the NCT test in Ireland.

NCT inspections are carried out at designated testing centres around the country and take approximately 30 minutes.

To pass the NCT, your car should be in good working order. Areas of inspection include brakes, tires, lights, suspension, steering, emission levels, as well as seatbelts and the vehicle’s bodywork.

Ensuring these parts are well-maintained not only helps in passing the test but also contributes to safer driving. You can prepare by checking your vehicle lights, tyre tread depth, and fluid levels and by addressing any dashboard warning lights.

If you are importing a car from another EU country and you have a current EU Roadworthiness Certificate, you can continue to use it in Ireland until it expires. We go into more detail here about importing your car to Ireland.

Following the test, you will receive an NCT certificate if your vehicle passes. This certificate is required for tax renewal.

What if You Fail the NCT?

If your car fails, you will receive a report detailing the reasons. You must repair these issues, book a re-test within 21 days, and the re-test must be completed within 30 days of the original test.

It’s important to note that driving a vehicle without a valid NCT certificate on the roads of Ireland is illegal and can result in fines and penalty points.


For more detailed information on the NCT, including guidelines on preparing for the test and scheduling a test for your vehicle, head over to the official NCT website. This resource provides comprehensive insights into the testing process and valuable tips to ensure your vehicle meets all the standards for safe and compliant driving in Ireland.

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Traffic Laws in Ireland

Understanding and adhering to traffic laws in Ireland is crucial for safe and lawful driving. Irish traffic laws might have some notable differences from those in other parts of the world, which may be even more challenging if you are driving in Ireland for the first time.

Roundabouts in Ireland go clockwise.
Oh the tricky Irish roundabouts! You got this; yield, drive slow, and remember they go clockwise, like a pint of Guinness.

Additional Driving Rules in Ireland

Understanding the finer nuances of driving rules in Ireland can make your experience safer and more enjoyable. Here, we delve into additional common driving rules that are essential to know for navigating Irish roads.

Seat Belt Usage

In Ireland, wearing seat belts is mandatory for all occupants of a vehicle, both in the front and back seats. This rule is strictly enforced, and failure to comply can result in penalty points and fines.

Speed Limit Variations

Speed limits in Ireland vary depending on the type of road and area. The current general speed limit is:

Be vigilant for speed limit signs, especially when transitioning between different types of roads. There may be specific lower limits in place on certain roads or in certain areas.

New speed limits coming: By the end of 2024, Ireland will roll out new speed limit laws. Due to a significant increase in road deaths in the last year, the plan is to lower the speed limits on Irish roads to 80km/h on dual carriageway national roads, 60km/h on rural roads, and 30km/h in built-up areas.

Cell Phone Usage

Using a mobile phone while driving is illegal in Ireland unless you have a hands-free system. The law includes texting, scrolling through playlists, or any other hands-on use of a phone. Violating this rule can result in fines and penalty points.

Driving Under the Influence

Ireland has strict laws against driving while intoxicated, so much so that most Irish residents will not drive after even one drink. According to the Irish Statute Book, the legal drinking and driving limit in Ireland is 0.05% BAC (blood alcohol content). For reference, that is lower than the 0.08% BAC legal limit in the U.S. and many other countries. For professional, learner, and novice drivers, the limit is even lower at 0.02%.

As a rule of thumb, for every one drink, your BAC goes up by about 0.02%. Meaning about 3 standard drinks will put you over 0.05%. However, remember that each person processes and reacts to alcohol differently so you can’t rely on that – it’s safest to just NOT DRINK before driving!

The penalties for drinking and driving can be severe, including fines, penalty points, and even imprisonment.

Right of Way Rules

As a general rule, the right of way is given to traffic approaching from the right, especially at uncontrolled intersections and roundabouts. However, always look for and obey right-of-way signs at intersections.

Special Licence Plates

Ireland employs a distinct system of licence plates to denote the experience level of drivers. This system includes:

Rules of the Road Resource:

Download the official Rules of the Road from the Irish Road Safety Association website.

How Does the Penalty Points System Work?

Ireland’s Penalty Points System is in place to promote safer driving and reduce road fatalities and serious injuries. It penalizes drivers for committing certain traffic offenses.

The system is intended to be transparent and fair, with penalty points applied based on clear criteria. The goal is not to punish but to encourage drivers to adopt safer driving habits.


For more information on the penalty point system, visit the Road Safety Authority site to learn more about how it works, types of offenses, and statistics.

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Tips for Driving in Ireland for Foreigners

Driving in Ireland presents unique challenges and experiences, especially for expats and foreigners. Adjusting to local driving conditions and regulations is essential to ensuring a safe and enjoyable journey on Irish roads.

Here are some tips to help you navigate Ireland’s roads more confidently, whether you’re behind the wheel for the first time or returning after a while:

Irish village street with double yellow lines.
Double yellow double no: No parking, no waiting – keep on rolling.

Check out the Irish Dept. of Transportation’s Traffic Signs Manual to familiarise yourself with signs indicating speed limits, directions, and warnings for safe navigation. Another good source for road signs in Ireland is the National Driving School’s guide (PDF).

Driving in Northern Ireland vs. the Republic of Ireland

When comparing driving experiences between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, it’s a tale of two Irelands.

Speed limits in Ireland are in km/h.
Remember, in Ireland, even the Leprechaun follows the speed limit. Watch the switch from km/h to mph when crossing the border.

Side of the Road

Luckily both countries drive on the left side of the road.

Speed Limits

One of the most notable differences is in the measurement units for speed limits and distances:

Be extra cautious when crossing the border and adjusting to new signs and speeds.

See the Speed Limit Variations section in this guide for more details and the changes coming to speed limit laws in Ireland.

Road Signs

Road signage in Northern Ireland also adheres to the UK format, which can be distinct from the signs in the Republic of Ireland. This includes variations in symbols, colors, and designs.

For example,

Urban Driving

The urban driving experience in Norther Ireland vs. The Republic of Ireland also differs significantly.

The Luas tram in Dublin shares roads with cars.
The Luas tram in Dublin shares roads with cars. Be aware and give way when required.

In Dublin, has the presence of tram lines and bus lanes adds another layer of complexity to city driving, with specific rights-of-way for public transport. Tram lines for the LUAS system often run alongside or intersect with regular traffic lanes. These trams have priority over other vehicles, meaning that when a tram is approaching or crossing, other traffic must yield.

Navigating Dublin’s bustling streets requires more than just a good map. Be sure to keep an eye out for the city’s dedicated bus lanes—zones reserved exclusively for public transport during specific hours. These lifelines for commuters can be easily identified by their clear markings and signage, and typically operate during peak traffic times, often in the mornings and evenings, to help buses zip past gridlocked cars and keep Dublin running smoothly.

On the flipside, Belfast’s traffic flow and regulations are closer to those in other major UK cities. One-way streets are common and require attention to signage to avoid entering against the flow of traffic. Controlled junctions, which may include roundabouts and intersections with traffic signals, require an understanding of UK-specific rules, such as giving way to traffic from the right on roundabouts.


Toll roads are also common in the Republic of Ireland, particularly on major routes, while Northern Ireland, following UK practice, does not have toll roads.

Driving in Ireland vs. United States

When comparing driving in the Republic of Ireland and the United States, there are several differences that stand out, such as:

Republic of IrelandUnited States
Side of the RoadLeftRight
Driver’s Seat PositionRight side of the carLeft side of the car
Speed Limit UnitsKilometers per hour (km/h)Miles per hour (mph)
Road CharacteristicsNarrower and more winding, livestock or pedestrians on the road, especially in rural areasGenerally wider and often grid-patterned, including in urban areas
Vehicle TransmissionManual transmission is more commonAutomatic transmission is the norm
Urban Road LayoutOften narrow and congested streets, like in DublinSpacious urban layouts, typical in many American cities


Driving in Ireland offers a unique experience filled with stunning landscapes and distinct road customs. From practicing driving on the left-hand side to familiarising yourself with local road signs and speed limits, it’s crucial to adapt to Irish driving norms for a safe and enjoyable journey.

Navigating the requirements for an Irish driver’s licence, complying with the National Car Test, and understanding the nuances of urban versus rural driving are all aspects of adapting to driving in Ireland. 

Remember, the right car insurance is not just a legal requirement but a vital aspect of ensuring your financial protection and peace of mind on the road. For expats and foreigners living in Ireland, finding reliable and comprehensive car insurance can be a struggle.

Hit the Irish roads with peace of mind! Clements crafts flexible car insurance options, made just for expats and international drivers, keeping you well-protected on your Irish driving adventures. Visit our Car Insurance for Ireland page for more information, or  request a quote today.

Enjoy your driving adventure in Ireland!

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